How do Kansas schools stack up against schools across the country? In order to answer that question, we need to use a measurement that is applied across the country.
Kansas scores compared with score for the USA
The following table suggests that Kansas schools are doing better than those in the rest of the country. It shows the percentage of students who score “at or above proficient” on four key tests on the “Nation’s Report Card.” Numbers in parentheses–(4) or (8)–indicated the grade level at which the test was given.
|Reading (4)||Reading (8)||Math (4)||Math (8)|
In three of the four tests, Kansas outperformed the nation.The asterisk (*) in the fourth means that the difference between the USA and Kansas is not statistically different. That is, it could have happened by chance. (Think of it as the “margin of error” that you hear of in public opinion surveys and you’ve got roughly the same idea.)
While having less than half of the students at proficient isn’t great, at least Kansas is above the national average. Or is it?
Breaking it down further
Let’s look closer. The following table offers a summary of the state’s performance by demographic group.
|Group of students||Do Kansas students test better than those in the country as a whole?|
|All students||Yes–In grade 4 reading, grade 4 math, and grade 8 math|
|Hispanic students||Yes, in grade 4 math|
|American Indian students||No difference for grade 8 reading; data not available for grade 4 reading or math|
|Asian/Pacific Islander students||No difference for reading or grade 4 math; data not available for grade 8 math|
|English language learners||No|
|Students with disabilities||No|
|Low-income students||Yes-In grade 4 reading, grade 4 math, and grade 8 math|
You can find this information by consulting National Center for Education Statistics, using NAEP Reading scores and NAEP mathematic scores. Look at whether the percentage of students within each group in Kansas who scored “at or above proficient” is “significantly different from” the percentage for the same group of students in the nation as a whole.
What explains higher state scores?
So where do the “above average” scores in the first table come from? It’s pretty simple. It provides group-specific percentages of students who score at or above proficient.
|Race or ethnicity||Reading (4)||Reading (8)||Math (4)||Math (8)|
|American Indian students||20||21||21||18|
The U.S. Census Bureau reports that in 2008, 80.3 percent of the Kansas population was “White persons not Hispanic,” while the comparable number for the USA was 65.5 percent. In other words, Kansas is 23 percent whiter than the USA (80.3/65.5). Given that white students score higher on the NAEP than students of other racial or ethnic groups, their preponderant numbers in Kansas guarantee that Kansas will outscore the country on the “Nation’s Report Card.”
We can argue all day long about the quality of Kansas schools, but the state’s performance on a nationally recognized test that is administered to a sample of schools in each state does not prove that Kansas schools are better than those anywhere else.